|VITAMIN||NRV UK/EU||SUL UK/EU from supplements||SUL US||RDA US (4+)|
|A (Retinol)||800mcg (2,664IU)||1500mcg (5000 IU) †||3000mcg||900mcg (3,000 IU)|
|Beta Carotene||Not defined||7mg (11,500 IU) used to be 20mg|
|B1 (Thiamine)||1.1 mg||100mg||1.2mg|
|B2 (Riboflavin)||1.4 mg||40mg||1.3mg|
|B3 (Niacin)||16 mg||500mg (Nicotinamide) 17 (Nicotinic acid) †||16mg|
|B5 (Pantothenate)||6 mg||200mg||5mg|
|B6 (Pyridoxine)||1.4 mg||10mg (200mg long term) †||100mg||1.7mg|
|B12 (Cobalamin)||2.5 mcg||2000mcg||2.4mcg|
|B9 (Folic acid)||200 mcg||1000mcg (may change to 400) †||400mcg|
|Biotin (B7)||50 mcg||900 mcg, but not defined †||30mcg|
|C (Ascorbate)||80 mg||1000mg||2000mg||90mg|
|D (Cholecalciferol)||5mcg (200 IU)||25mcg (1000 IU), 100mcg (4,000 IU) †||20mg (800 IU)|
|E (Tocopherol)||12 mg (18 IU)||540mg (800IU) 675 mg (1000 IU) †||1,500 IU (d-alph)||15mg (22.5 IU)|
|K||75 mcg||1000mcg (1 mg) †||120mcg|
|MINERAL||UK/EU NRV||SUL UK||SUL US||RDA US (4+)|
|Chromium (III) †||40mcg||10mg (10,000mcg), 250mcg (WHO)||35mcg|
|Copper||1mg||1mg, 10mg (including food sources)||900mcg (0.9mg)|
|Iron||14mg||17mg (unless deficient, prescribed) 200mg †||18mg|
|Molybdenum||50mcg||Not defined, but less than 200mcg is very safe||45mcg|
|Potassium||2000mg||3,700mg (too low)||4,700mg|
|Boron||3mg (experts)||6mg, 9.6mg total (incl. food sources)|
SOURCE of the above data is based on: Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals report May 2003 ‘Safe upper levels for vitamins and minerals: report of the expert group on vitamins and minerals’ [Values relate to intake in adults] (source1 >) (source2 >)
† Vitamin A: Where the maximum daily dose of pre-formed vitamin A (retinol) is greater than 800μg insert caution: ‘Do not take vitamin A supplements if you are pregnant or likely to become pregnant except on the advice of a doctor or ante-natal clinic’
Advise not to launch products containing more than 800μg of retinol and to make substantial reductions in the levels of retinol present in fish liver oil supplements wherever possible.
Maximum 800μg daily for pregnant women and those who might become pregnant.
† Vitamin B3 (Niacin): Nicotinamide and Nicotinic Acid are two forms of Niacin (Vitamin B3). Nicotinic Acid is not as safe in large quantities (flushing) as Nicotinamide and the HFMA levels indicated assume that one or other form is taken, not both.
† Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine): Dosages between 10 mg and 200 mg may be used short-term, but intakes above 200 mg are not generally recommended except under medical supervision. The upper level suggested by the EU is 25 mg per day from supplements.
† Folic Acid: Because 400μg of folic acid/day linked to risk of colorectal cancer, in April 2012 FSA and DoH issued a request to limit folic acid taken by people over 50 years or with a previous history of colorectal adenomas to 200μg folic acid/day.
Excess Folic Acid also masks Vitamin B12 deficiency.
† Biotin: Due to the lack of studies it is not possible to derive UL for biotin, though some studies have shown Biotin to be safe at 10,000mcg per day or even much more.
† Vitamin E (Tocopherol): Maximum 675 mg (1000 IU) can be supplied if accompanied by label advice stating either ‘Not intended for long term use’ or ‘For use under guidance of a practitioner’
In the US, the upper safe level for adults is 1,500 IU/day for supplements from natural and 1,100 IU/day from synthetic vitamin E.
† Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol): SUL data is often confusing as some sources still suggest 25mcg (1000 IU) per day in spite of the fact that it should be 100mcg (4,000 IU) from supplements. This higher level was revised and updated within the EU in 2012 (source >).
† Manganese: Officially in EU no SUL is set but it is safer to not take more than 4mg from supplements as often about 5-10mg can be obtained from food. Fore this reason various sources suggest that SUL for manganese from all sources (including food, water and supplements) should be 11mg.
Supplements containing more than 4000 IU per day are not prohibited because of the common cases of vitamin D deficiency (Less than 50nmol/L), which is initially treated with a total dose of up to 300,000 of cholecalciferol (D3) over a few weeks, followed by maintenance therapy of 20µg (800 IU) or more daily. Supplemental vitamin D toxicity is highly unlikely if the agreed safe upper limit for long-term intake is 4,000 IU (100μg) per day. Hypercalcaemia is a risk only in patients with disorders of calcium metabolism, such as primary hyperparathyroidism or granulomatous disease (source >).
Unfortunately, most physicians do not know that hypercalcaemia and calcification, which can be caused by taking high doses of vitamin D, can be prevented by taking Vitamin D with vitamin K2 (MK-7) (50mcg of K2 per every 1000 IU of D3). This is also the reason why we should take a daily dose of 2000-4000IU of Vitamin D3 combined with Magnesium (150-300mg) and Vitamin K2 (MK-7) (100-200mcg) in one well-balanced supplement, or take all three separately, every day. Vitamin D must be taken with Magnesium because without it Vitamin D is useless, as it can’t be converted in our body to its final form, and because most of us are deficient in Magnesium. In addition, Vitamin D supplements gradually lead to Magnesium deficiency as this mineral is used in the body for the conversion of Vitamin D. Vitamin K2 must be taken with Vitamin D, because it is the only way to prevent Vitamin D from leading to dangerous calcification, or from accumulating calcium in the blood, arteries (hardening), kidneys (stones), pineal gland, joints (arthritis), colon (constipation), etc. It also needs to be stressed that only Vitamin K2 and not K1 can prevent this process of calcification.
† Vitamin K: Products providing more than 100μg of Vitamin K in the daily intake should carry the following warning: ‘If you are taking anti-coagulants (blood thinners) do not take this product except on the advice of a doctor.’
† Iron: Supplements where the total Iron content of the package is equal to or in excess of 200mg should carry the following warning; ‘This product contains iron, which, if taken in excess, may be harmful to very young children. Keep out of sight and reach.’
† Chromium (III): III refers to trivalent chromium. There are two main types of chromium ions, which are found in chromium compounds. One type of chromium ion (Cr3+, trivalent chromium) is required by our body and by those of other animals.