GUM DISEASE, PERIODONTAL DISEASE, PYORRHOEA, PERIODONTITIS, GINGIVITIS, BAD BREATH, HALITOSIS
Written by Slawomir Gromadzki (“Swavak”), MPH
Periodontitis is a gum infection which damages the soft tissue and the bone that supports teeth. Over time it causes tooth loss. Gum disease may even increase risk of heart attack, stroke and other health problems. It is estimated that more teeth are lost due to Periodontal disease than due to decay. Almost all Americans have at least some parts of diseased gum tissue, and more than 50% suffer from a progressive pyorrhoea. There are different types of periodontitis. Chronic one is the most common.
– Bleeding of the gums when brushing, which is often the first sign.
– Bad breath
– Bright red, swollen and tender gums
– Gums pull away from teeth, making teeth loose and looking longer
– Bad taste in the mouth
Researchers suggest that the bacteria responsible for periodontal disease may enter the bloodstream through the gum tissue and travel to the coronary heart arteries causing inflammation and arterial narrowing which contributes to heart attacks.
Causes of bad breath may include:
– Eating or drinking strong-smelling or spicy foods and drinks.
– Problems with your teeth or gums, such as gum disease, holes in your teeth or infection.
– Consumption of certain foods (especially mixture of dairy and refined sugar) that trigger excessive fermentation in the stomach and intestines.
– Certain medical conditions, like tonsillitis or acid reflux
– Some believe periodontitis is usually the result of poor oral hygiene which allows bacteria build up on the back of the tongue and in between teeth. But on the other hand, there are many individuals who never develop the disease although their oral hygiene is very poor.
– It’s thought that periodontitis begins with plaque — a sticky film composed mainly of bacteria. Plaque forms on your teeth when starches and sugars in food interact with bacteria normally found in your mouth. Brushing and flossing your teeth removes plaque. But plaque re-forms quickly, usually within 24 hours. Plaque that stays on your teeth longer than two or three days can harden under your gum line into tartar (calculus). Tartar also may form as a result of the mineral content of your saliva. Tartar makes plaque more difficult to remove and acts as a reservoir for bacteria. You can’t get rid of tartar by brushing and flossing — you need professional dental cleaning to remove it. The longer that plaque and tartar remain on your teeth, the more damage they can do. Initially, they may simply irritate and inflame the gingiva, the part of your gum around the base of your teeth. This is called gingivitis, the mildest form of periodontal disease. Ongoing inflammation eventually causes pockets to develop between your gums and teeth that fill with plaque, tartar and bacteria. Bacteria deposit endotoxin — a by-product of their own metabolism — which is responsible for much of the inflammation around teeth. In time, these pockets become deeper and more bacteria accumulate, eventually advancing under your gum tissue. These deep infections cause a loss of tissue and bone. If too much bone is destroyed, you may lose one or more teeth.
– Weak immune and oversensitive immune system. According to the researchers from the University of Maryland Medical Center, there is evidence that gum disease is an autoimmune condition triggered by infectious organisms and an abnormal immune response to collagen. Normally, the mouth is inhabited by more than 350 different species of microorganisms. About five percent of these bacteria are gram-negative organisms, a type of bacteria normally found in the digestive tract. Evidence shows that a subset of gram-negative anaerobic bacteria is responsible for triggering the immune response that leads to plaque and tartar. Once formed, plaque and tartar go on to release toxins that stimulate the immune system to produce chemicals known as cytokines. Cytokines are important for healing, but when pro-inflammatory cytokines are produced in excess, they cause inflammation and tissue damage. Several studies published in recent years suggest that cytokines related to these bacteria damage more than periodontal tissue. They may also have damaging effects on other organs throughout the body, including the heart. For this reason, one’s periodontal status offers clues to their cardiovascular health.
Several anaerobic bacteria have been found to be responsible for triggering the autoimmune response in periodontal disease. These include Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. These two species of bacteria are reported to be particularly responsible for aggressive periodontal disease. Both P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans, along with multiple deep pockets in the gum, are associated with resistance to standard treatments for gum disease. P. gingivalis, in particular, may double the risk for serious gum disease. P. gingivalis produces enzymes, such as one called arginine-specific cysteine proteinase, that may disrupt the immune system and lead to subsequent periodontal connective tissue destruction. Other bacteria associated with periodontal disease are Treponema denticola, T. socranskii, and P. intermedia. These bacteria, together with P. gingivalis, are frequently present at the same sites and are associated with deep periodontal pockets.
Besides bacteria, several viruses have been implicated in the periodontal autoimmune response. These include herpes simplex and varicella-zoster virus, (the cause of chickenpox and shingles) and also cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).
Researchers have previously found that individuals with the chronic periodontal disease show evidence of antibodies to collagen, types I and III. The immune reaction to collagen appears to be more common in persons with other autoimmune disorders, particularly type I diabetes. Further research into the role that vitamin D insufficiency, which is common in autoimmune disease, plays in periodontal disease is warranted.
– Other conditions and factors which increase the risk of developing gum disease include Nutritional deficiencies (lack of Calcium, Boron, Magnesium, Vitamin C, E, B-complex, Zinc, etc.); Refined diet high in sugar, high glucose/fructose syrup, white flour products, white rice; Heated animal protein found in dairy and meat products; Stress, anxiety and depression; Free radicals and a diet low in antioxidants; Stimulants (Smoking, caffeine, alcohol, cola drinks, chocolate, etc.); Poor oral hygiene; Gingivitis; Heredity; Diabetes; Age; Medications, Hormonal imbalance, etc.
– Vitamin D3 deficiency. There is a growing amount of research which suggests that a lack of vitamin D could be an important factor in causing autoimmune diseases. Almost every person in England is deficient in vitamin D which is very important for the human nervous and immune system.
In his bestselling book “China Study” Prof Colin Campbell wrote that, “Autoimmune diseases, in general, become more common the greater the distance from the equator. This phenomenon has been known since 1922.” This statement leads us to a simple conclusion that Hashimoto disease may have a lot to do with the vitamin D (“sun vitamin”) deficiency as well as the modern unhealthy lifestyle of North America or Europe. Read more about vitamin D >
– Magnesium, Zinc, Iodine, and Selenium deficiency.
– Toxins: Mercury (from dental fillings, tap water, fish, flu shots, etc.) lead, fluoride, and other toxins.
– Food intolerances: Gluten and A1 Casein (dairy) allergy.
– Hormonal Imbalances: Too much cortisol (from stress).
– Stress, anxiety and depression. A number of published papers have shown that stress and negative emotions contribute to all autoimmune diseases.
– Consumption of trans fats, margarine and bad oils (high in pro-inflammatory omega 6) and deficiency of omega 3 healthy fats high in foods such as Flaxseed, Chia seed, etc..
– Bad lifestyle, an unhealthy diet high in sugar, processed refined foods, nutritional deficiencies, artificial sweeteners, lack of exercise, stimulants, drugs, medication, and in particular excessive stress, depression and pessimism may lead to the oversensitivity of the immune system which changes its nature and starts attacking own body.
– Consumption of meat and dairy products (can trigger an autoimmune response and causes hormonal imbalance), refined, junk and processed foods, refined sugar, white flour products, high glucose (high fructose) syrup, stimulants (including coffee, tea, green tea, cola, etc., nutritional deficiencies, white pasta, white rice, processed foods, stress, lack of exercise, etc.
– Dairy Products: Because dairy products are high in protein, salt, fat and phosphates, they may actually interfere with the retention of calcium stores and cause more calcium to be lost than saved when they are used in the large amounts usually promoted by the dairy industry. High levels of protein make an acid condition in the blood, tax the organs which must eliminate the excess and trigger loss of calcium from the bones. The kidneys have to excrete the excess and the wastes left over from metabolism, increasing the risks of developing kidney disease. The calcium excess from so much dairy products may form kidney stones. This process of calcium loss due to dairy consumption is not reserved for those over 35 who have reached peak bone mass and are experiencing age-related bone loss. Even younger people who consume a great deal of dairy have been found to have thinning bones. As dairy consumption in a population goes up, so does osteoporosis. Note the chart below on hip fractures.
– Other causes may include refined diet; lack of exercise; smoking; alcohol; coffee; prescription drugs (especially cortisone, prednisone and their relatives); over-the-counter pain killers; oral contraceptives; lack of sunlight; aluminium or phosphate baking powders; anorexia nervosa; diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and other bone diseases; sedentary lifestyle or periods of enforced bed-rest;
Brushing at least twice a day, flossing daily and getting regular dental check-ups can greatly reduce your chance of developing periodontitis.
Take some good fluoride-free toothpaste and mix it with one drop of peppermint oil. Brush teeth after every meal as it will remove bad breath and give you an immense menthol feeling all the time.
However, if you expect even better results, I highly recommend flossing on a daily basis before brushing teeth. Initially, your gums may bleed. To reduce or eliminate bleeding try taking 100-400 mcg of Vitamin K2 MK7 every day.
For effective flossing use the same mentioned above mixture of peppermint oil and fluoride-free toothpaste mixture and floss after every meal (at least 3 times a day) as it will kill bad bacteria and should be effective in treating bad odour and halitosis caused by the bacterial plague.
Peppermint oil (including one of its key active ingredients, Menthol) is a popular ingredient in mouthwash products, helping resolve halitosis and at the same time, gum problems. It not only freshens up the breath but also kills growing inside the mouth pathogenic bacteria that often cause the bad smell.
Fortunately, cavities and gum disease and bone loss are both 100% preventable and both are reversible. If you only manage to live according to the principles listed in the HEALTH RECOVERY PLAN and use remedies presented here the recovery is possible.
HERBAL REMEDIES & SUPPLEMENTS
– Vitamin B12: 1,000 to 2,000 mcg a day under the tongue (must be sublingual Methylcobalamin!). Many people with autoimmune diseases have low levels of this most important vitamin. Read a fascinating article on B12 >
– Take good quality probiotic formulas.
– You must take Vitamin D3 because almost all patients suffering from gum disease and autoimmune diseases patients are deficient in Vitamin D! While using vitamin D3 supplements always remember to take also well-absorbed magnesium (such as citrate) as vitamin D supplements lead to magnesium deficiency over time. If you can’t afford higher doses take at least 4,000 IU of vitamin D3 a day with a meal. But since deficiency of this vitamin is so widespread (especially in the UK) it would be better to take 20,000 to 30,000 IU a day with meals with appropriate doses of magnesium. Another requirement for proper absorption of vitamin D is 200 mcg of Vitamin K2 MK-7 (Derived from Natural Natto) a day. Read more about vitamin D > The most important way of obtaining vitamin D is of course through regular sun exposures during summertime between 10 am and 2 pm. Unfortunately, since in the UK almost every person is deficient in vitamin D the only solution seems to be supplementation. Vitamin D deficiency plays an important role in the development of gum disease. It is essential in helping your body to properly absorb and use calcium which helps to keep the spine and bones strong. Without vitamin D, our body begins to robe the spine of calcium. Since vitamin D supplements lead to magnesium deficiency, and because according to recent studies almost every in the UK person is now deficient not only in vitamin D but also magnesium, you must take 400 to 800mg of good quality magnesium every day. Read more about vitamin D
– Magnesium citrate: 800mg a day between meals with water.
– Use Neem extract or oil to brush your teeth. Neem has powerful anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties. In a German study of 70 patients with Periodontal disease, there was a significant improvement after just about 10 treatments with a Neem-based toothpaste and Neem mouthwash. Gingivitis can be prevented or even reversed with regular use of a toothpaste and mouthwash with Neem bark extract. There are individuals who experienced a reversal of gum disease as a result of chewing fresh Neem leaves.
– Coenzyme Q10: “I’ve been taking 200mg Co-Q 10 (ubiquinone) for a few years…am in my 50’s and have always had periodontal problems. The Co-Q has helped my gums immensely, flossing many times each day; my dentist takes Co-Q also. I have zero heart issues and am generally fit & healthy.”
– Boost Glutathione levels which is the most powerful of all antioxidants and strengthens the immune system and is one of the most effective remedies against gum disease and autoimmune diseases. It boosts the body’s ability to modulate and regulate the immune system. It is also important to provide the body with ingredients that increase glutathione production in the liver by taking turmeric, milk thistle, NAC (N-acetyl cysteine), bioactive whey protein, Alpha Lipoic Acid, bilberry, vitamin C, asparagus, broccoli, peaches, avocado, spinach, garlic, squash, grapefruit.
– Taking selenium supplements and increasing consumption of foods high in selenium (Brazil nuts, sunflower seeds, mushrooms, garlic, onions, etc.).
– Take good quality omega 3 fish oil supplements (HealthAid makes excellent molecularly distilled and perfectly free from mercury or lead omega 3 fish oil): 750-1500 mg a day with a meal.
– Zinc – 30 to 50mg a day after breakfast.
– Tea tree oil (strong antiseptic properties). A few drops to the toothbrush.
– Himalayan salt dissolved in warm water to gargle twice a day (will kill bacteria)
– Hydrogen peroxide (2 to 3%) and gargle. success guaranteed!
– Vitamin C – 1,000 to 5,000 mg a day with meals
– Bee Propolis spray or tincture. Use it as often as possible both internally and externally (on toothbrush)
– Avoid mouthwashes with alcohol as they make bacteria grow faster!
– Chlorophyll tablets or liquid help freshen the breath because they have a cleansing effect in the intestines. Take a chlorophyll after each meal and at bedtime. In 1950, Dr. Howard Westcott found that 100 mg of chlorophyll in the diet neutralized bad breath, body odour, urine stools, and menstrual odours. According to Dr Mike Adams, “Taken from the green pigment in plants, chlorophyll is very similar in chemical structure to human haemoglobin. The difference is that where haemoglobin contains iron, chlorophyll contains magnesium. One of the reasons people drink wheatgrass, alfalfa, barley, or spirulina is that these plants contain very high concentrations of chlorophyll and can help to cleanse toxins from the bloodstream. Bad breath is usually a sign of a toxic colon, and chlorophyll helps to remove the toxins.” (>)
When tested in a nursing home with 62 patients, one study reported improvements in the odours emanating from the test subjects. In addition to odour reduction, it also alleviated constipation and gas. Study abstract: “In a test group of 62 geriatric nursing home patients, the administration of chlorophyllin (chlorophyll derivative) tablets was found to be helpful in controlling body and faecal odours. It aided also in easing chronic constipation, served at times as a useful and morale-building placebo, and assisted in abating excessive flatus. No toxic or other ill effects were observed.”
A study in Japan found that chlorophyll supplements in the diet can help treat a body odour disorder called trimethylaminuria. Scientists found that consuming copper chlorophyllin (chlorophyll derivative) for 3 weeks helped to improve body odour.
– Chlorella: 3 tablets (or 1 teaspoon of powder) 30 min before breakfast and 1 tablet 30 min before lunch with vegetable juice or water. Every day increase the dosage by 1 tablet until 10 tablets (or 1 heaped tablespoon) 30 min before breakfast and 10 tablets 30 min before lunch (always with 2-3 glasses of water or vegetable juice).
Chlorella is regarded as the best natural energy booster, detoxifier, pain reliever, and regenerating agent. It is the highest source of nucleic acids RNA and DNA which are capable of repairing damaged DNA. Chlorella together with other supplements and herbal remedies will slowly rebuild the annulus fibrosus which is the key cause of the herniated disc. Since chlorella is 10 times higher in chlorophyll than green leafy vegetables it is best possible oxygen pump in the human body. Read more about amazing healing properties of Chlorella >
– Excellent and very effective Clean Greens (Pukka) or Raw Reserve (Amazing Grass): 1 teaspoon of the powder 30 min before breakfast with vegetable juice or water and 1 teaspoon 30 min before lunch. It can be taken together with chlorella. Clean Greens is one of the most powerful remedies I know as many of our customers told me how effective this formula was in dealing with inflammations, back pains, chronic fatigue, diabetes, cancer, gastrointestinal problems, liver and kidneys problems, weak immune system, etc. It consists of an organic blend of 11 super-rich mostly freeze-dried green superfoods including Wheat Grass Juice (30 times stronger than regular juice!), Nettle, Chlorella, Spirulina, Kale Sprouts, Seagreens, freshwater plants and digestive herbs. Made with some of nature’s finest herbs, grown in fertile organic soils it captures the incredible essence of nature’s bounty. Raw Reserve has similar benefits as Clean Greens but it has more ingredients. It is a completely raw food with powerful antioxidants, herbs, super grasses, vitamins and minerals. It is a blend of raw and high-quality, nutrient-dense ingredients from the land, freshwater, and the sea with 25 billion probiotics per serving and digestive enzymes to aid digestion and absorption.
– Digestive Enzymes. If your bad breath is related to poor digestion, try supplementing your diet with digestive enzymes that include bromelain (from pineapple), papain (from papaya), lactase (if you consume dairy), and other enzymes suitable for vegans.
– Phyllis A. Balch, suggests in his book that “Alfalfa is rich in chlorophyll, which cleanses the bloodstream and colon, where bad breath often begins. Try 500 to 1,000 mg in tablet form or 1 tablespoon of liquid in juice or water three times daily. Gum disease is a major factor in bad breath. If the infection is present, place alcohol-free goldenseal extract on a small piece of cotton and place the cotton over infected gums or mouth sores. Do this for two hours per day for three days. It should quickly heal the infected parts. Use myrrh (to brush your teeth and rinse your mouth), peppermint, rosemary, and sage.” (>)
NUTRITIONAL AND LIFESTYLE RECOMMENDATIONS
Autoimmune, including gum disease, diseases can be reversed by practising the following guidelines:
– Avoid all animal foods including cheese, meat products, all dairy, stimulants (caffeine, alcohol, cigarettes, etc.).
– Go on vegan unrefined diet as it gives best results. Eat especially with lots of raw vegetable salads and raw vegetable juices.
– Proper stress control and positive thinking – extremely important!
– Eliminate all junk food, processed food, artificial sweeteners, trans fats, and anything with bad preservatives and chemical.
– Eating whole, unprocessed foods, and choosing as many organics as possible.
– Getting adequate sun exposure if possible (20 minutes a day during summertime between 10 am and 2 pm) to maintain vitamin D levels.
– Avoid gluten (wheat products, etc.). The molecular structure of thyroid tissue is almost identical to that of gluten and therefore the immune system may start sending antibodies not only against gluten proteins but against proteins found in different organs causing autoimmune diseases. In this way, gluten can increase the autoimmune reaction. Many people with autoimmune diseases have an autoimmune reaction to gluten, and it usually goes unrecognised. Gluten can cause the gastrointestinal system to malfunction, so foods aren’t completely digested. These food particles can then be absorbed into the bloodstream where the body misidentifies them as antigens and then produces antibodies against them.
– Avoid all dairy products as heated dairy protein (especially A1 casein) often irritates the immune system stimulating it to produce antibodies against different internal organs. The most common allergies and food intolerances today are from wheat and dairy products because of the hybridized proteins of gluten and a1 casein. These proteins can cause Leaky Gut Syndrome which leads to inflammation.
– Use glass bottles as Bisphenol A (BPA) which is found in plastic bottles and cans (they are lined up with plastic) disrupt endocrine system.
– Avoiding chlorine, fluoride (toothpaste with fluoride, etc.), and bromine as they also contribute to autoimmune diseases.
– Avoid hydrogenated fats and trans fats (margarine, doughnuts, cakes, etc.) and pro-inflammatory omega 6 fatty acids (soy oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, etc.).
Ray Peat Ph.D., a physiologist who has worked with progesterone and related hormones since 1968, says that the sudden surge of polyunsaturated oils into the food chain post World War II has caused many changes in hormones. He writes: “Their [polyunsaturated oils] best understood effect is their interference with the function of the thyroid gland. Unsaturated oils block thyroid hormone secretion, its movement in the circulatory system, and the response of tissues to the hormone. When the thyroid hormone is deficient, the body is generally exposed to increased levels of estrogen. The thyroid hormone is essential for making the ‘protective hormone’s progesterone and pregnenolone, so these hormones are lowered when anything interferes with the function of the thyroid. The thyroid hormone is required for using and eliminating cholesterol, so cholesterol is likely to be raised by anything that blocks the thyroid function.”
– Increase consumption of omega 3 fatty acids in the form of ground flax seeds, chia seeds. Omega 3s are the building blocks for hormones that control immune function and cell growth.
– Detoxifying body from heavy metals by using a combination of Chlorella, Milk Thistle, Turmeric, Cilantro.
– Remove any dental fillings containing mercury.
– Increasing intake of healthy fats such as raw coconut oil, coconut milk, avocado, chia seeds (soaked for at least 30 minutes or overnight), ground flaxseed, and hemp seeds as they will balance hormones. Coconut oil is one of the best foods for thyroid. Coconut oil is a saturated fat comprising medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs), which are known to increase metabolism and promote weight loss. Coconut oil is very stable (shelf life of three to five years at room temperature), so the body is much less burdened with oxidative stress than it is from many other vegetable oils.
– Increase consumption of vitamin A in the form of beta-carotene found in carrots, apricots, green leafy vegetables, etc.
– Eliminate stimulants (anything with caffeine or other similar harmful alkaloids: coffee, tea, green tea, mate, yerba mate, cola, chocolate, etc.).
– Exercise at least 30–60 minutes per day.
– Get enough sleep.
– Practice deep breathing.
– Address adrenal fatigue. A prolonged stress response can lead to adrenal exhaustion (also known as adrenal fatigue). Find out more about ADRENAL FATIGUE >
– Treat unresolved emotional issues as a source of stress. Autoimmune diseases reflect emotions and mental attitude. When people with autoimmune diseases make progress in treating unresolved emotional issues, their symptoms subside. Stress, anxiety or depression are often key culprits. It is important to identify the stressors and learn use ways such as prayer that can help to control stress and negative emotions.
– Read about the DEADLY CONSEQUENCES OF UNFORGIVINGNESS >
– Drink and use for cooking only distilled or at least filtered water. Not all water filters remove fluoride, so make sure the one you have does or use only distilled water (buy a water distiller). Taking chlorella and turmeric help to get rid of fluoride and heavy metals such as mercury.
– Calcium intake is promoted by the dairy industry as the primary factor in osteoporosis. Advertising campaigns have been designed to persuade us that taking calcium supplements and drinking and eating dairy products are absolutely necessary for bone growth. But research has proven that supplementing calcium does not promote new bone growth. Calcium carbonate supplements have been found to actually suppress bone growth.
– Avoid acid-forming foods such as vinegar, animal products; baking powder; and foods high in sugar, salt or fat
– Boxed, canned, and frozen foods should be avoided when fresh food is available, as they are often deficient in nutrients and loaded with bone-robbing salt, fat or sugar. There are many cookbooks available today to teach you how to prepare natural foods in a variety of interesting, delicious ways.
– Plant foods supplying calcium in adequate quantities so that questionable dairy products or calcium supplements will be unnecessary include most seeds; greens like spinach, kale, mustard, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussels sprouts and celery; carrots; green peas; green snap beans; oatmeal; cream of wheat; cashews; almonds; dried fruits; lentils; lima beans; soybeans and soybean products like tofu.
– Avoid sugar, fructose, glucose, coffee, tea, and other stimulants.
– Chlorella, Spirulina and seaweeds have been reported to help re-mineralize bones. It was once thought that bones could not be recalcified, but it is now recognized that sometimes calcium can be replaced in the bones. Starting with a mild variety of seaweed, like Arame, is a good way to begin to get used to this new taste. Nori comes in dark green dried sheets. Seaweeds can be purchased in health food stores or Oriental groceries. Most have to be soaked and cooked, but Dulse and Seapalm can be eaten right out of the bag. Nori can also be eaten straight from the bag or lightly toasted until it turns a beautiful green. Vegetables can be added to a seaweed dish or seaweed can be added to cooking beans, greens or pasta or crumbled overcooked dishes. Care should be taken to rinse the extra salt off the saltier varieties.
– Drink only distilled water > and avoid hard water (high in calcium) because it contains inorganic calcium carbonate which is harmful and contributes to arthritis, kidney stones, constipation and hardens arteries. Add a little bit of fresh lemon juice to your distilled water to make it more alkaline and tastier.
Read a fascinating article about WATER >
– Periodontal Disease. The University of Maryland Medical Center, October, 2010. accessed Dec 2, 2010. H.Z. Hirsch, A. Tarkowski, E.J. Miller, S. Gay, W. J. Koopman, J. Mestecky. Oral Pathology and Medicine. 2006. Autoimmunity to collagen in adult periodontal disease, 2006, April 28: 456-9.
– Yamazaki H1, Fujieda M, Togashi M, Saito T, Preti G, Cashman JR, Kamataki T. (2004) Effects of the dietary supplements, activated charcoal and copper chlorophyllin, on urinary excretion of trimethylamine in Japanese trimethylaminuria patients. Life Sci. 2004 Apr 16;74(22):2739-47.
– Young RW, Beregi JS Jr. (1980). Use of chlorophyllin in the care of geriatric patients. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1980 Jan;28(1):46-7.
– Hafström I, Ringertz B, Spångberg A, et al. A vegan diet free of gluten improves the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis: the effects on arthritis correlate with a reduction in antibodies to food antigens. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2001, 40:1175-1179.
– Proudman SM, James MJ, Spargo LD, et al. Fish oil in recent onset rheumatoid arthritis: a randomised, double-blind controlled trial within algorithm-based drug use. Ann Rheum Dis 2013.
– Tursi A, Brandimarte G, Papa A, et al. Treatment of relapsing mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis with the probiotic VSL#3 as adjunctive to a standard pharmaceutical treatment: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Am J Gastroenterol 2010, 105:2218-2227.
– Shrivastava, Alankar. (2009). A Review on Peppermint Oil. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 2. 27-33.
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